No other location on Earth compares to Egypt’s Giza Plateau. Anyone who has even a passing interest in history or civilization is aware of this. Because it is on this plateau that the Great Pyramids and their carved guardian, the Great Sphinx, are located.]
Although several ideas exist, no one knows for certain who built the Giza Pyramids or carved the Sphinx, or when they were created. Any assertion about who constructed them or when they were erected is just speculation.
In view of the numerous ideas surrounding these strange monuments, I believe it is impossible to overstate the theoretical character of the pyramid builders.
What impresses out most at Giza is not only the scale of the pyramids’ construction, but also the Great Pyramid’s interior plan; three chambers, one of which is underground, and their connecting tunnels.
The corridor leading to the so-called King’s Chamber is thirty-six feet high! All other passages, on the other hand, were not built tall enough to accommodate the ordinary man or woman.
Additionally, there is the King’s Chamber’s and Queen’s Chamber’s distinct configurations. Both of these chambers have two shafts, one on each side. The east wall of the Queen’s Chamber features a corbelled niche, while the ceiling of the King’s Chamber is formed of five granite slabs placed one over the other. It is unknown why these rooms were created in this fashion.
The accepted hypothesis is that the pyramids were tombs and that King Khufu changed his mind about the location of his burial chamber, which explains why the Great Pyramid has three rooms. However, when compared to traditional Egyptian burial practices (the mastaba and the tombs in the Valley of the Kings), the Giza pyramids, particularly the Great Pyramid, perform poorly in terms of the Egyptian notion of a tomb.
Ancient Egyptian Perspectives on the Afterlife
Egyptians believed in an afterlife, and the tomb played a significant role in their belief. As King Tutankhamun’s tomb attests, the deceased’s chamber of interment was to be lavishly furnished with art and brimming with the deceased’s treasures.
They did not do this procedure for superstitious purposes, as one might think. According to their beliefs, it was practical to prevent that person’s energy (spirit) from being reabsorbed into Nature’s spiritual power.
According to the ancient Egyptians, Ba animated a living being, whereas Ka represented the energy originating from that being. Although not identical, the Ka and the Ba are analogous to what conventional Western philosophy could regard to as spirit and soul. Another significant part of Egyptian religion was the ankh, which was pictured as the crested ibis.
The Ka, symbolized by outstretched arms in art, was considered to be the aspect of man’s consciousness and energy (man’s spirit or inner character) that was connected to the immediate world. It is the part of ourselves that is related to the physical body; where it lived, its belongings, and the people it knew.
The Ka can be compared to one’s individuality, which is separated from the body upon death and naturally seeks a means to reappear. The Ba, depicted by a winged human head or occasionally by a human-faced bird, symbolized the immortal aspect of consciousness.
When someone died, it was their wish and the family’s hope that the deceased’s Ka would seek a method to remain connected to their Ba. To assist in achieving this eternal unity, the family gathered the deceased’s things and deposited them in the tomb with the mummified body.
Mummification protected the corpse from disintegrating and returning to the Earth’s dirt, whilst the tomb and its contents functioned as a ‘home’ for the Ka. As a result, the Ka retained its spiritual identity and was able to search out its Ba in order to reach ankh, which resulted in the deceased’s resurrected and glorified form transcending the bounds of an earthly realm.
Pyramids and the Egyptian Tomb Concept
As with the pharaonic tombs cut into the Valley of the Kings, royal mastabas created throughout the early dynasties – some as early as 3000 BCE – were also designed with the concept of ‘home’ in mind, specifically as it related to a person’s Ka.
As an example, Mereruka’s mastaba, from the sixth dynasty, was built in mansion-like proportions with thirty-two chambers and embellished with sculptures and paintings representing, among other things, views of animals along the Nile River.
The Giza pyramids lack the characteristics of Egyptian home life that were so skillfully interwoven into the architecture of their tombs. The Giza pyramids are devoid of any form of art or hieroglyphics, which is unusual of Egyptian tombs.
Thus, why are the Giza pyramids typically regarded as graves of fourth-dynasty Pharaohs? The reason for this is that the Giza complex is associated with another construction ten miles south at Sakkara, where the Egyptians really built tombs in the shape of pyramids.
Gaston Maspero (1846–1916), a French Egyptologist, found hieroglyphics inscribed on the underground chamber of the Pepi I Pyramid (second king of the sixth dynasty) near Sakkara in 1881.
Subsequent studies revealed that a total of five pyramids at Sakkara also held inscriptions from the Old Kingdom’s fifth, sixth, seventh, and eighth dynasties.
Dr. Samuel A.B. Mercer (1879–1969), a University of Toronto professor of Semitic Languages and Egyptology, released a comprehensive English translation of “The Pyramid Texts” in 1952 in a book of the same name.
The Pyramid Texts, according to Mercer, comprised ‘words to be uttered’ on burial rituals, magical formulas, and religious hymns, as well as pleas and requests on behalf of the departed king.
With the confirmation of the Sakkara pyramids being graves, the associative logic dictated that all pyramids must be tombs. Additionally, given the presence of two cemeteries (mastaba fields) to the east and west of Giza’s northernmost pyramid, presuming that all pyramids are tombs was a reasonable conclusion. However, the state of the Sakkara pyramids — the majority of which are considered to have been built after the Giza pyramids – complicates this logical relationship.
Only Djoser’s ‘Step Pyramid’ in Sakkara is in decent shape, despite the fact that it is not a true pyramid. (Originally a mastaba, the Step Pyramid was converted into a pyramid.) The remainder of Sakkara’s pyramids, the most of which date from the fifth and sixth dynasties, are in ruins and resemble mounds of debris.
Egyptologists agree that Djoser’s Step Pyramid at Sakkara was built during the third dynasty and served as a precursor to the fourth dynasty pyramids on the Giza Plateau. Following the completion of the Giza pyramids, for whatever reason, the focus of pyramid construction went back to Sakkara.
This poses an explaining difficulty. What was the Great Pyramid if not a tomb? Is it a mystical shrine for initiation rituals or a public works project aimed at national unification? Or was it something totally different?
Although there are other theories, the only one that I am aware of that encompasses every facet of the Great Pyramid’s internal architecture is Christopher Dunn’s notion that it was a device. Dunn believed that the Great Pyramid was a contraption for generating electricity by transferring tectonic vibration to electricity.
There are a variety of reasons why Dunn analysis should be accepted. To begin, he discusses the Great Pyramid’s internal architecture and all other evidence in a coherent manner.
Second, he exemplifies the technical abilities necessary for precision building. Third, Dunn’s experience and career are in precise fabrication and manufacturing, which uniquely qualifies him to offer an expert judgment on the Giza pyramid builders’ skills and tools.
The reality is that modern construction companies could not build the Great Pyramid without first devising specialized tools and procedures for dealing with stone blocks weighing between ten and fifty tons. Such an undertaking would be comparable to the construction of a hydroelectric dam or a nuclear power plant, which would need tens of billions of dollars in resources.
While our current economy is distinct from that of the ancient world, the resources necessary now are same to those required then! The stone must be mined and transported, and the laborers compensated.
The fact that an enormous amount of resources were devoted to the development of the Giza pyramids over an extended period of time implies, in my opinion, that pyramid construction was functional, and not for any fourth dynasty pharaonic vanity of possessing the world’s largest headstone.
Evidence and Perspectives on Prehistory
To my mind, the evidence strongly suggests that early dynasty Egypt was much different. Around 3000 BCE, the development of civilization began with the creation and expansion of permanent communities in the Lower Nile Valley.
Giza and its environs were chosen as the focal point for early Dynastic Egypt because ‘civilization’ had previously been there, as shown by the three pyramids and the Great Sphinx. Without knowing why the pyramids were built, the early Egyptians thought they were graves as well.
As a result, they revitalized the Giza Plateau and transformed it into a Necropolis, then extended to Sakkara, where they constructed tombs in the pyramid style, but of poorer quality and without the talents displayed by the original Giza pyramid builders. Because pyramid construction, even the smaller ones at Sakkara, was resource intensive, the Egyptians returned to the ancient mastaba for burying their elite.
This scenario, which necessitates an older civilization with high technological capabilities, introduces another difficulty. It contradicts the conventional paradigm of history. However, the existence of an older civilization does not rely solely on the Giza pyramids. Additionally, there is the Sphinx, which was geologically dated in 1991 by the team of John Anthony West and geologist Dr. Robert Schoch to be between 7,000 and 9,000 years old.
Add to that the megaliths of Nabta Playa in southwestern Egypt, which, according to astronomer Dr. Thomas Brophy, are thought to have been a star gazing diagram that links not only the distance from Earth to the belt stars of Orion, but also their radial velocities. Another ‘perplexing’ find is the 1260-ton foundation stones for the Baalbek temple in Lebanon, west of Beirut, one of which was left in the quarry.
While history undoubtedly conceals mysteries, there is sufficient evidence to support the argument that civilization is considerably older than previously assumed. According to the ancient Egyptians, history corroborates this. According to the Papyrus of Turin, which contains a comprehensive list of rulers prior to Menes (before 3000 BCE), the following:
“…the renowned Shemsu-Hor, who reigned for 13,420 years.”
Up until Shemsu-reign, Hor’s 23,200 years “
These two sentences are evident in the king’s list. Egyptian history, according to their archives, spans 36,620 years. The argument that the years on the king’s list do not correspond to real years but to an other, shorter unit of time appears to be an attempt to explain away rather than to explain.
The ancient Egyptians had a complex calendar system based on a 365-day year that was regularly adjusted by the star Sirius’ predictable and cyclical nature. Every 1,461 years, Sirius’s heliacal rise signaled the start of a new year. A single Sirius cycle is 1,461 years long, with each year equal to 365.25 days.
In essence, the ancient Egyptians’ ‘leap year’ began with the marking of the New Year with the heliacal rise of Sirius. Of course, calculating the duration of Sirius’ cyclical nature takes thousands of years of stellar observation, which implies that the beginnings of pharaonic Egypt, or its source of knowledge, must be in the distant past.
Egyptologist Walter Emery in the late twentieth century appears to have agreed in general that ancient Egypt’s roots reach deep into prehistory. Emery thought that ancient Egypt’s written language evolved beyond visual symbols, even during the first dynasties, and that signs were utilized to express sounds in addition to a number system. When hieroglyphics were stylized and incorporated into architecture, a cursive script was already widespread. His conclusion was as follows:
“All of this indicates that the written language underwent a lengthy period of development, the remnants of which have yet to be discovered in Egypt.” 
Additionally, ancient Egyptian religion attests to a lengthy period of growth. Their faith, which is more akin to a philosophy of nature and existence than a religion ‘ is founded on a degree of complexity that appears to be more scientific than legendary in all regards.
Egyptian Thought’s Symbolism and Nature
Of course, those who are skeptical of this approach to history would like to know where the proof for this technological and ancient civilization is located. If such a society existed, there would very certainly be overwhelming evidence to support it. I would concur with the skeptic if a purely uniformitarian approach to geologic formation were widely regarded as reality.
Mass extinctions, on the other hand, appear to be a reality as a result of environmental catastrophism caused by volcanism, asteroid or comet impact, or stellar (gamma) radiation.
There have been five major mass extinctions in Earth’s history, according to geologists: the Ordovician (440–450 million years ago), the Devonian (408–360 million years ago), the Permian (286–248), the Triassic (251–252 million years ago), and the Cretaceous (144–65 million years ago). Although many of these cataclysms occurred long before the current human form, there are two recent worldwide calamities.
Mount Toba in Sumatra erupted around 71,000 years ago, releasing a huge amount of ash into the atmosphere. It was the greatest volcanic eruption in the previous two million years, about 10,000 times the size of the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens.
The resulting caldera generated a 100-kilometer-long by 60-kilometer-wide lake, resulting in catastrophic and long-lasting climatic impacts. A six-year volcanic winter followed, followed by a thousand-year ice age. The volcanic winter decreased world temperatures due to its sulfuric smog, resulting in drought and starvation, decimating the human population.
Geneticists predict that the population has been reduced to between 15,000 and 40,000 people. Lynn Jorde, a professor of human genetics at the University of Utah, believes the number might have been as low as 5,000. 
Even more recent is the enigmatic calamity that occurred at the conclusion of the Ice Age, approximately 10,000 years ago. Nobody knows for certain if it was caused by a natural phenomena or an asteroid collision. What is known is that the environment had a profound effect on the lives of individuals who lived throughout that time period.
Numerous North American animals became extinct during the end of the Ice Age, including the mammoth, camel, horse, ground sloth, peccaries (pig-like hoofed mammals), antelope, American elephant, rhinoceros, huge armadillo, tapirs, saber-toothed tigers, and enormous bison.
It had a comparable effect on climates in lower latitudes in Central and South America, as well as Europe. Additionally, these territories have uncovered signs of widespread extinction. Nonetheless, the mechanism that precipitated this Ice Age-ending calamity remains unknown.
If an old technological civilization existed in the distant past, what are the chances that it would survive a global disaster intact? The Toba eruption’s estimates are not promising. Neither are the scenarios for a hypothetical asteroid strike that astronomers and climate scientists are developing now.
Archaeological evidence indicates that anatomically modern man (Cro-Magnon) first emerged in Western Europe 40,000 years ago. Where they come from has always been a source of consternation. They must have moved from Africa, as this is the natural conclusion.
However, such migrations necessitate the existence of a host culture, which there is no evidence for.
Nonetheless, a plausible site for this host civilization would have been around the Mediterranean Sea’s coastlines, which were likely formerly a series of fresh water lakes.
If there was an early civilization in the Mediterranean region, it would have perished in the inferno that transformed those lakes into a salt-water sea.
If it were true, the vestiges of individuals who lived on the outside of that civilization would appear to us now as anomalies such as the Giza pyramids and the Baalbek gigantic stones.
Although Western Europe’s Cro-Magnon civilizations were once a part of a large Mediterranean civilization, they would also look as an oddity. For us, it would be as if they materialized out of thin air.
By Edward Malkowski